SAPROF
Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk
Other research

We are trying to keep track of all studies on the SAPROF. On this site we give an overview of some ongoing research projects. If you are conducting a research project on the SAPROF yourself, we would be happy to add it to the website.

The following are some of the international research studies that are being / or have been conducted:

 

United Kingdom

- Michael Doyle, Jeremy Coid & Jenny Shaw et al, London/Manchester,UK

  • Title: Validation of new Risk Assessment Instruments for use with Patients Discharged from Medium Secure Services
  • Design: Prospective community cohort follow-up, repeated measures
  • Sample: N=795 patients discharged from NHS Medium secure pathways inEnglandandWales(all discharge between 1/9/10 and 31/8/11)
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20v3 & MSRAG
  • Outcome: 12-month follow-up post-discharge and measure of violent outcome. Validation of SAPROF, HCR-20 v3 and MSRAG with this sample, as well as exploration of the role of protective factors.
  • Status: Data collection underway. Dissemination expected 2014.

- Richard Whittington & Andrew Brown et al, Liverpool, UK

  • Title: Preventing violence recidivism in secure psychiatric care: The concurrent validity and clinical utility of the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk (SAPROF)
  • Design: Postdictive clinical/inpatient/forensic and general psychiatry
  • Sample: N=68 forensic inpatients (medium security) and N=42 general Mental Health service inpatients (non-forensic)
  • Tools: SAPROF + HCR-20 & PCL-SV
  • Outcome: Patient violence as recorded in clinical case notes in 12 months prior to SAPROF
  • Status: Completed, paper under review

- Alina Haines, Richard Whittington & Andrew Brown et al, Liverpool, UK

  • Title: Prospective Validity of the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF) Instrument for Violence
  • Design: Prospective clinical & community
  • Sample: N=150 forensic and non-forensic mentally disordered (in-/out-) patients with or without a history of violence
  • Tools: SAPROF + HCR-20 & PCL-SV
  • Outcome: Frequency and severity of violence at 2 time points (baseline and 6 months after)
  • Status: Expected timeframe: Feb-Dec 2013

- Jodie Hart & Adrian Cree, London, UK

  • Title: The clinical utility of protective factors in predicting outcomes of forensic patients transferred to the community; A retrospective analysis of a cohort of discharged patients from medium and low secure settings between 1996 and 2004.
  • Design: Retrospective
  • Sample: N=40 patients discharged into the community
  • Tools: SAPROF
  • Outcome: Recalled or readmitted to psychiatric services
  • Status: Data collection underway, project to be completed September 2013

 

The Netherlands

- Michiel de Vries Robbé, Vivienne de Vogel et al, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Study 1.

  • Title: Risk and protective factors in clinical practice: Measuring change in high risk offenders
  • Design: Prospective clinical follow-up
  • Sample: N=315 forensic psychiatric patients (tbs)
  • Tools: SAPROF & HCR-20
  • Outcome: Violent incidents during treatment (12 months)
  • Status: Data collection completed, projected to be finalized Spring 2013

Study 2.

  • Title: Risk- and protective factors: A two-sided dynamic approach to violence risk assessment
  • Design: Retrospective file study
  • Sample: N=188 violent + sexual offenders / forensic psychiatric patients (tbs)
  • Tools: SAPROF & HCR-20
  • Outcome: (sexually) violent recidivism after treatment (1-3-11 year)
  • Status: Completed, paper under review

Study 3.

  • Title: Assessing protective factors for sexually violent offenders: The value of the SAPROF
  • Design: Retrospective file study
  • Sample: N=83 sexual offenders / forensic psychiatric patients (tbs)
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20 & SVR-20
  • Outcome: Violent and sexually violent recidivism after treatment (1-3-15 year)
  • Status: Completed, paper under review

Study 4.

  • Title: Treatment progress and treatment success: Assessment with dynamic risk- and protective factors
  • Design: Retrospective file study repeated measures
  • Sample: N=120 violent + sexual offenders / forensic psychiatric patients (tbs)
  • Tools: SAPROF & HCR-20
  • Outcome: Change during treatment, related to (sexually) violent recidivism after treatment
  • Status: Data collection completed, projected to be finalized Spring 2013

Study 5.

  • Title: Self-assessment of protective factors: The value of including the patient
  • Design: Prospective clinical comparison
  • Sample: N=30 forensic psychiatric patients (tbs)
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20, qualitative questionnaire
  • Outcome: Comparison of patient self-assessment ratings (interview) and staff ratings,  patient and staff opinions on the value of protective factors
  • Status: Data collection underway, projected to be completed Summer 2013

 

Switzerland

- Valérie Moulin, Milena Abbiati & Eric Francescotti, Lausanne, Switzerland

  • Title: Validation of the SAPROF in French
  • Design: Retrospective study
  • Sample: N=200 violent and sexual offenders (forensic psychiatric) in French-speakingSwitzerland
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20, SVR-20 & PCL-R
  • Outcome: Official recidivism and aggression in prison or hospital over 12 years
  • Status: Data collection underway

 

Germany

- Dahlnym Yoon, Peer Briken et al, Hamburg, Germany

 Study 1.

  • Title: Protective factors in 450 adult male sexual offenders
  • Design: Retrospective
  • Sample: N=450 adult male sexual offenders incarcerated in Austrian prison system
  • Tools: SAPROF + SVR-20
  • Outcome: Official re-conviction, follow-up 6 years in average
  • Status: Completed, paper under review

Study 2.

  • Title: Protective factors in alleged juvenile sexual offenders
  • Design: Retrospective
  • Sample: N=66 juveniles alleged for sexual offending
  • Tools: SAPROF + SAVRY
  • Outcome: Official police records, follow-up +/- 4 years
  • Status:

Study 3. 

  • Title: Factors related to recidivism risk among sex offenders in an outpatient treatment program
  • Design: Prospective
  • Sample: N=70 sexual offenders in treatment in outpatient aftercare treatment program (FORAS) inHamburg, community setting
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20, SVR-20, Static-99 & PCL-R
  • Outcome: official re-conviction, follow-up +/- 3 years
  • Status: In preparation, expected to be finished 2013 

Study 4. 

  • Title: Effect of protective factors on therapeutic intervention in incarcerated offenders
  • Design: Prospective
  • Sample: N=100 inmates (end 2012) in the socio-therapeutic unit (SOTHA) inHamburgprison
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20, SVR-20, Static-99, STABLE, SVG-10 & PCL-R
  • Outcome: Intramural incidents, follow-up (update) every year
  • Status: On-going project

 

Belgium

- Ben van Heesch, Leuven, Belgium

  • Title: Protective factors for forensic psychiatric patients: The protective value of the items from the SAPROF
  • Design: Qualitative research in a forensic psychiatric setting
  • Sample: Small sample of staff and forensic psychiatric patients of OPZCRekem,Belgium
  • Tools: SAPROF (self-assessment interview for patients) + qualitative questionnaire
  • Outcome: Qualitative data analysis (interviews, observations)
  • Status: In preparation, expected to be finished Summer 2013 

 

Portugal

- Cristina Neves & Cristina Soeiro, Lisbon, Portugal

  • Title: Research with probationers and parolees
  • Design: Retrospective file study
  • Sample: 98 Portuguese probationers and parolees
  • Tools: SAPROF & HCR-20
  • Outcome: violent and non-violent recidivism, follow-up average 13 months
  • Status: Data collection under way, project to be completed April 2013

- Tiago Almeida, Cristina Neves & Cristina Soeiro, Lisbon, Portugal

  • Title: Research in psychiatric settings
  • Design: Prospective
  • Sample: forensic and civil psychiatric samples
  • Tools: SAPROF, HCR-20 & PCL-SV
  • Outcome: To characterize and identify protective factors in, analyze their relationship with risk factors and levels (low, medium, high)
  • Status: Data collection under way, project to be completed April 2013

 

Canada

- Simone Viljoen & Tonia Nicholls et al, Vancouver, Canada

  • Title: Examining utility of strengths and protective factors in violence risk assessment measures in a chronic civil psychiatric population
  • Design: Retrospective file review with prospective follow up design
  • Sample: N=150 (60%male-40%female) patients with severe mental illness residing in a psychiatric care facility, being transferred to residential treatment facilities in community
  • Tools: START, SAPROF, HCR-20 & PCL-SV
  • Outcome: Negative outcomes (i.e., violence to others, offending etc.) coded prospectively from file information at facility, four follow-up time periods (i.e. every 6 months for two years) using the START Outcome scale.
  • Status: Data collection underway, projected to be completed Summer 2013

 

New Zealand

- Nick Wilson & Ann Tapara, Hamilton, New Zealand

  • Title: An examination of the psychometric properties of the SAPROF as applied to high-risk violent offenders undergoing treatment
  • Design: Prospective inpatient
  • Sample: N=50 male prisoners from Special Treatment Units for violent men
  • Tools: SAPROF, SDAC-21, VRS & MCMI-III
  • Outcome: reliability & convergent validity
  • Status: Data collection underway, Mid/Late 2013 anticipated completion date

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